Notes: Local Governance


decentralization, devolution, local autonomy

Local Government Code of 1991

  • allowed for popular participation which is hinged on the concept of democracy; provisions allowed for more involvement of the citizenry in local government
  • initiated the devolution of powers (decentralization) to address the problems of inequity brought upon by imperial Manila
  • aimed to spur regional and local development

Factors that influence its success:

  • character of the local elite
  • orientation of elected leaders
    > sense of accountability
  • level of organization of the people


  • strengthens the local warlords and politicians
    > personal interest over constituency
  • weaken national programs
    e.g. environmental protection, agrarian reform, reproductive health bill

Here are references available via the UP iLib system.

  • Demystifying Local Power (1997)
    Letty C. Tumbaga
    with case studies on Marikina; Irosin, Sorsogon; Naujan
  • People’s Participation in Local Governance
    contains articles that can be used as class reading text to practice analytical skills particularly on the history of non-participation
  • Ang mga Barangay ng Pilipinas
    contains history of the barangay from early Filipino societies to the American period
    discusses local government codes of 1983, 1991, etc
  • People’s Council
    Empowerment Ordinance of the City of Naga
  • Public Education on the Rule of Law: Teaching Exemplars

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